Biology – 10

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Class 10 Biology Course Summary:

Theme 01: Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

  • Cell division: The process of cell reproduction.
  • Cell cycle: The sequence of events in a cell’s life from division to division.
  • Phases of mitosis: The stages of cell division, including prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
  • Significance of mitosis: Ensures growth, repair, and replacement of cells.
  • Meiosis: Cell division for sexual reproduction, reducing chromosome number.
  • Significance of meiosis: Genetic diversity in offspring.
  • Chromosomes: Thread-like structures containing genetic material.
  • Structure of chromosomes: Composed of DNA and proteins.
  • Gene: Segment of DNA carrying genetic information.
  • DNA and its structure: Double helix with nucleotide building blocks.

Theme 02: Genetics

  • Variations: Differences in traits among individuals.
  • Mendel’s contribution: Gregor Mendel’s work on inheritance.
  • Mendel’s laws of inheritance: Principles governing the transmission of traits.
  • Traits expression: Genotype and phenotype.
  • Sex determination in human beings: XX (female) and XY (male) chromosomes.
  • Sex-linked inheritance: Genes located on sex chromosomes.
  • Inheritance of diseases: Genetic diseases.

Theme 03: Absorption by Roots

  • Root system: Plant’s underground organ for water and nutrient uptake.
  • Absorption of water: Essential for plant survival.
  • Active and passive transport: Mechanisms for water uptake.
  • Tonicity and plasmolysis: Osmotic concepts.
  • Turgidity and flaccidity: Cell pressure states.
  • Cohesive, adhesive forces, and transpirational pull: Mechanisms for water transport.
  • Root pressure: Force aiding water movement.

Theme 04: Transpiration

  • Types of transpiration: Cuticular, stomatal, and lenticular.
  • Factors affecting transpiration: Light, temperature, humidity, wind, and more.
  • Adaptations to reduce transpiration: Stomatal closure, reduced leaf surface.
  • Significance of transpiration: Water transport and cooling.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of transpiration.
  • Measurement of transpiration: Techniques.
  • Direct loss of water by plants.

Theme 05: Photosynthesis

  • Important events in photosynthesis: Light-dependent and light-independent reactions.
  • Requirements of photosynthesis: Light, water, carbon dioxide.
  • Mechanism of photosynthesis: Conversion of light energy into chemical energy.
  • End-products of photosynthesis: Glucose and oxygen.
  • Significance of photosynthesis: Basis of life, oxygen production.
  • Adaptations in leaves for photosynthesis: Chloroplasts.
  • Factors affecting photosynthesis.

Theme 06: Chemical Coordination in Plants

  • Tropic movements in plants: Growth responses to stimuli.
  • Plant growth regulators (hormones): Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and ethylene.

Theme 07: The Circulatory System

  • Blood: A vital fluid transporting oxygen and nutrients.
  • Blood group: ABO and Rh systems.
  • The heart: A muscular organ pumping blood.
  • Lymphatic system: Immune system support.

The Excretory System

  • Types of waste products: Nitrogenous waste.
  • Excretory organs in the human body: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra.
  • Mechanism of urine formation: Filtration, reabsorption, secretion.
  • Significance of excretion: Removal of metabolic waste.
  • Haemodialysis: Artificial kidney.

Theme 9A: The Nervous System

  • Types of nervous actions: Reflex and voluntary.
  • Human nervous system: Central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral (nerves).
  • Nervous cells: Neurons.

Theme 9B: Sense Organs

  • Types of sensory receptors: Detect stimuli.
  • The eyes: Visual sensory organ.
  • Stereoscopic vision: Depth perception.
  • Adaptation of the eye: Focusing.
  • Defects of the eye: Myopia, hypermetropia, and more.
  • The ears: Auditory sensory organ.

Theme 10: The Endocrine System

  • Characteristics of hormones: Chemical messengers.
  • Glands: Secrete hormones.
  • Human endocrine system: Various glands and their functions.
  • Homeostasis and hormonal feedback system: Regulation of internal conditions.

Theme 11: The Reproductive System

  • Asexual reproduction: Reproduction without gametes.
  • Sexual reproduction: Fusion of gametes.
  • Sexual reproduction in human beings: Male and female reproductive systems.
  • Twins: Monozygotic and dizygotic twins.

Theme 12: Population

  • World population: Global demographics.
  • Population trend in India: Growth and distribution.
  • Reasons for unchecked growth of the population: High birth rates.
  • Population explosion: Rapid population growth.
  • Consequences of increasing population in India.
  • Population control: Measures to control population.

Theme 13: Human Evolution

  • Theory of inheritance of acquired characters: Lamarck’s theory.
  • Basic postulates of Lamarck’s theory.
  • Evidence from vestigial organs.
  • Darwin’s theory of evolution.
  • Human evolution: Evolutionary history of Homo sapiens.

Theme 14: Pollution

  • Waste: Environmental pollutants.
  • Types of environmental pollution: Air, water, soil pollution.
  • Effects of pollution on climate and environment.
  • Vehicular standards: Euro/Bharat stages.
  • Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Clean India campaign.
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What Will You Learn?

  • It compliments different subjects, such as Physics, Math.
  • It gives you a challenge and opens up a new learning opportunity
  • Biology can help stimulate and challenge you academically.
  • Science is a constantly evolving field.
  • By the end of this course you will have received a thorough preparation in Biology.

Course Content

Theme 01: Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Theme 02: Genetics

Theme 03: Absorption by Roots

Theme 04: Transpiration

Theme 05: Photosynthesis

Theme 06: Chemical Coordination in Plants

Theme 07: The Circulatory System

Theme 08:The Nervous System & Sense Organs

Theme 09: The Endocrine System

Theme 10. The Reproductive System

Theme 11. Population

Theme 12. Human Evolution

Theme 13. Pollution

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